A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Laboratory services are provided in a variety of settings: physicians’ offices, clinics, hospitals, and regional and national referral centers. The Chemistry Lab conducts fundamental studies of highway materials to understand both failure mechanisms and superior performance.
New standard test methods are developed to improve and facilitate the chemical analysis of highway materials and to characterize and quantify new or alternative sustainable materials. The Laboratory also assists with forensic investigations of premature failures of pavements and other highways structures.
Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength.
A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist’s laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior.
HISTORY OF THE LABORATORY
The early “laboratory” recorded in English involved alchemy and the preparation of drugs. The emergence of great science during World War II increased the size of laboratories and scientific equipment, introducing particle accelerators and similar equipment.
According to current evidence, the earliest laboratory was the home laboratory of the famous Greek philosopher and scientist Samos Pythagoras. This laboratory was created when Pythagoras conducted an experiment on the tone and chord vibrations of sound.
In Albert Edelfelt’s painting of Louis Pasteur in 1885, Louis Pasteur is shown as comparing a note in the left hand with a solid bottle in the right hand without wearing any personal protective equipment. Team research began in the 19th century, and many new devices were developed in the 20th century.
An underground Alchemy Laboratory of the 16th century was accidentally discovered in 2002. Rudolph II, Holy Roman emperor is considered the master. The laboratory, known as the speculum Alchemist, is preserved as a museum in Prague
TYPES OF CHEMISTRY LAB
General Chemistry Labs
Organic Chemistry labs
Analytical Chemistry labs
SAFETY IN THE LAB
* Make sure you are familiar with all safety information for each experiment before you start the experiment. This includes your manuals, these safety guidelines, any published information, or any other information provided by your lab instructor.
* Always wear safety glasses (including during check-in and check-out) unless specifically authorized by the lab instructor prior to removal. Contact lenses are prohibited. You must also wear a mask when requested by a lab instructor.
* You must wear a lab coat (and do it) in all chemistry labs.
* Footwear must completely cover the foot and heel (no sandals, dolls, ballet flats, mules, open-toed shoes, etc.)
* You have to wear long pants (no shorts, leggings, skirts or dresses).
* If you arrive at your chemistry lab and do not have the required clothes, you will be instructed to rent or buy missing items (glasses, lab coat, disposable foot cover and trousers) from the chemistry store before you will be allowed to ginseng
* Loose hair must be tied back in order to move out of the way. Hanging jewelry must be removed.
* Do not eat or drink in the laboratory.
* Please keep your work area and public work area clean. Also, make sure that access, safe showers, eye wash stations and doorways are unobstructed. Please leave all glassware, equipment, tools, etc. As clean as you found, please clean up the spillage immediately. If the leak is large or contains hazardous substances, please notify the TA immediately. Use an overflow mixture to absorb solvents or caustic liquids.
* Please follow the instructions provided in the laboratory manual to dispose of waste properly and in a timely manner. If you are not sure, ask your teaching assistant about the appropriate disposal method.
* The vapors of many organic solvents are flammable or flammable. Do not expose EDM, open flame and heating elements to organic solvent vapors. Unless otherwise indicated, it is assumed that all organic solvents are flammable.
* Many chemicals (solid, liquid or vapor) are toxic. Do not taste chemicals. If it is necessary to smell a chemical, do so by flapping the Steam on your nose. Do not inhale directly. Avoid inhalation of dust or fine powder. Use fume hoods and personal protective equipment if necessary.
* Do not aspirate with your mouth.
* Take extra care when transferring, distilling, or refluxing volatile liquids.
* Do not return used chemicals to the inventory container.
* Do not heat, measure, or mix any chemicals in front of your face.
* Never heat the closed system-it will act as a bomb!
* Do not pour water into concentrated acid. Slowly pour the acid into the water, stirring constantly. Mixing the acid with water is usually exothermic.