Geography world is a science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth’s surface.


Meaning Of Geography

Scope and Nature of Geography

Branches of Geography



Geography is the study of the relationship between places and people and the environment. Geographers explore the physical properties of the earth’s surface and human society all over the earth. Geography tries to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they evolve and change over time.


Geography as a whole explores the physical dimensions of our planet as well as the population and land and its inhabitants. The main goal of this field of research is to develop a variable relationship between people and the land they live in, as well as other factors, which makes it a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach.

Some of the multidisciplinary intersections of the discipline include history, science, environmental and demographic studies, thus making geography a diverse field of research. It also contains the study of culture, ethnicity, the earthy characteristics of the earth and the economies of different regions. If you are interested in pursuing a career in this field, please read this blog to learn about the geographical scope, the main career options available, and the employment areas you can choose from.

Geography is one of the oldest earth sciences, its roots can be traced back to the works of early Greek scholars. The word “geography” was first used by the Greek scholar Eratosthenes in the third century BC to describe geography “Earth” and “Graphy” .  ” Geography literally means to describe the surface of the earth. In other words, ” geography is to a large extent the study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena and the landscape created through this interaction. “It’s about how, why and where human and natural activities occur and how these activities are connected to each other. Geography has changed in its methods. Early geographers were descriptive geographers. Later, geography was developed as an analytical science. Today, the discipline focuses not only on description, but also on analysis and prediction


* Physical: Physical geography (or physiography) focuses on geography as an earth science. It aims to understand physical problems and problems of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, pedosphere and global animal and plant patterns (biosphere). Natural geography is the study of the earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams ,landforms and oceans

* Human: Human Geography(or anthropogeography) is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of the patterns and processes that shape human society. It includes human, political, cultural, social and economic aspects.

* Integrated: Comprehensive geography focuses on the description of the spatial interaction between humans and the natural world. It needs to understand the traditional aspects of natural and human geography, just like the way human society conceptualizes the environment. Comprehensive geography has become a bridge between human beings and natural geography, because the degree of specialization in these two sub-fields is getting higher and higher. Because globalization and technological change have led to changes in the relationship between human beings and the environment, a new method is needed to understand the changing dynamic relationship. Examples of research areas in environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management, sustainability, and political ecology.

* Geographic Information: Geographic information focuses on the application of computers to traditional spatial technologies used in cartography and topography. Geoinformatics emerged from the geographic quantitative revolution in the mid-1950s.Today, geoinformatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing and global positioning system (GPS). Geology led to the revitalization of some geographic departments, especially in North America, where the discipline’s status declined in the 1950s.

* Area: A branch that focuses on the description of the unique characteristics of the Earth’s surface, leading to each area from its complete nature or combination of elements, as a physical and human environment. The main purpose is to understand or define the uniqueness or characteristics of a particular area composed of natural and human elements. Attention should also be paid to regionalization, which includes appropriate techniques for dividing space into regions.


To study the different lands and environments on earth, as well as the relationship between humans and the lands they live in, geography is indeed a huge river, intersecting with different branches of social science. Studying for a Geography degree, you can explore a wide range of opportunities in the public and private sectors. Due to the huge range of geography, here are the main areas of employment you can explore:

  • Urban and Rural Planning
  • Cartography
  • Climate Analysis
  • Population Analysis
  • Environmental Science
  • Nature Conservation Sanctuaries
  • Travel and Tourism
  • Education
  • Environmental Law
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