A physician, medical doctor, medical practitioner, or simply doctor, is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through research, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases, injuries, and other physical and mental disorders.
Doctors can focus their practice on certain disease categories, patient types, and treatment methods-called professions-or they can assume the responsibility of providing continuous and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities medical practice correctly requires detailed knowledge of academic disciplines such as anatomy and physiology, underlying diseases and their treatment—medical science-and a decent ability in their applied practice-the art or craft of Medicine.
TYPES OF MEDICAL DOCTORS
PRIMARY CARE MEDICAL DOCTOR
A person can go to a primary care doctor and seek help for minor ailments. They answer health questions and perform health checks. They perform routine health tests, including cholesterol or blood sugar level tests, and provide referrals to a specialist if necessary. They keep a person’s medical records together.
A primary care doctor may be one of the following types:
Family practice physician
Family practice physicians also known as family medicine doctors, treat people of all ages.
Internal medicine physician
An internal medicine physician performs many of the same tasks as a family practice physician. However, internal medicine physicians treat adults only.
Pediatricians focus on treating children from birth to young adulthood. They may be a child’s primary care physician and have training in, well-baby/child visits, school or sports physicals, childhood vaccines, disease prevention for children and babies, treating illnesses and injuries in children and babies.
A Geriatric medical doctor
Geriatric physicians, also known as geriatric physicians, focus on caring for the elderly. They focus on examining the aging process, preventive care for the elderly, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect the elderly.
Specialists are trained in a specific field of Medicine. This allows them to treat complex health problems that primary care doctors may not be able to solve. A specialist may be one of the following types:
An allergist or immunologist focuses on the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases and conditions. These usually include various types of allergies and asthma. Allergy sufferers also need to receive training in internal medicine or paediatrics.
The anesthesiologist focuses on the well-being of the person before, during and after surgery. This may include administering painkillers, relaxing drugs, or medications to put a person to sleep. The anaesthetist monitors the person during the procedure to ensure that the vital signs of their body are stable. They may also work with people after surgery to make sure their pain is under control.
Cardiologists focus on the cardiovascular system, including the heart and blood vessels. They treat many cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart attacks and strokes, heart rhythm problems, congestive heart failure. A cardiologist can perform many tests and procedures. However, they do not perform heart surgery. They also need to receive training in internal medicine or paediatrics.
Dermatologists focus on diseases and conditions of the skin, nails and hair. They treat conditions such as eczema, skin cancer, acne and psoriasis.
Endocrinologists treat diseases and conditions that affect the endocrine system. This system involves the production and release of hormones in the body of various glands. Endocrinologists treat hormone-related conditions such as, diabetes, thyroid conditions, hormone imbalances, infertility, growth problems in children, adrenal conditions. Endocrinologists also need to receive internal medicine or paediatric training.
Gastroenterologist focuses on the digestive system. This includes the esophagus, pancreas, stomach, liver, small intestine, colon and gallbladder. Gastroenterologists also perform procedures such as endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. They need to be trained in internal medicine or paediatrics.
General surgeons perform surgery on many organs and body systems. They may have training diseases of the abdomen,breasts, endocrine system, gastrointestinal system, skin. General surgeons also take care of a person before and after their surgery.
A heart surgeon performs heart surgery and may work with a cardiologist to determine what a person needs. Procedures performed by heart surgeons include heart bypass surgery and placement of stents in the heart.
Infectious disease doctors
Infectious disease doctors specialize in infectious diseases and conditions. These may include: cellulitis, influenza, bacterial infections, including Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that causes diarrhea and stomach problems, infections after surgery or hospital care, tuberculosis, pneumonia, parasitic infections, HIV. Infectious disease doctors are also required to receive internal medicine or paediatric training.
Nephrologists focus on Kidney Care and conditions that affect the kidneys. Conditions they can treat include, kidney disease, renal failure, diabetes, kidney stones, lupus, high blood pressure. Nephrologists also have education on kidney transplantation and dialysis. They also need to receive training in internal medicine or paediatrics.
Neurologists treat the condition of the nerves, spine and brain. One may see a neurologist, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, neuropathy, stroke, migraine
Ophthalmologists specialize in eye and vision care. They treat diseases and conditions of the eye and can perform eye surgery. They may also see people perform routine eye care, including prescribing glasses and conducting tests.
Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (OB/GYNs) provide preventive care and disease management for women’s health conditions. These include, female reproductive health, cancer prevention and diagnosis of female reproductive organs, Breast Care, Pregnancy, Childbirth and childbirth, infertility, menopause.
Otolaryngologist is sometimes referred to as “otolaryngologist” (ENT) doctor. An otolaryngologist may treat problems with the sinuses, throat, tonsils, ears, mouth, head and neck. Some otolaryngologists receive additional training to focus on a specific area, such as pediatrics or Rhinology, which refers to the nose and sinuses.
Oncologists treat cancer and its symptoms. During the treatment of cancer, there may be several types of health care professionals in a person’s care team. Some cancer care professionals have specific training, certain types of cancer, specific cancer treatments, certain areas of the body, cancer-related health issues, Care Coordination. Oncologists are also required to receive training in internal medicine or pediatrics.
Orthopedists specialize in diseases and conditions of bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons and joints. They can treat, arthritis,sports injuries, bone tumors, back pain, fractures, osteoporosis, repetitive strain injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome or tennis elbows.
Pulmonary pathologists focus on the organs involved in breathing. These include the lungs and heart. A pulmonary pathologist may work in a hospital to provide ventilation or life support. They also see people in the office to treat breathing disorders, lung diseases and allergies. Pulmonary doctors also need to receive internal medicine or paediatric training.
A psychiatrist is a doctor who treats a mental health condition. They may use counseling, medication, or hospitalization as part of their treatment. Some psychiatrists have sub-specialties in specific areas, such as adolescent mental health or addiction medicine.
Urologists treat urinary tract conditions in both men and women. They also focus on male reproductive health. Some urologists focus on specific areas within urology, such as female urology or male infertility.
Radiologists specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases using medical imaging tests. They can read and interpret scans such as X-rays, MRI, mammograms, ultrasound and CT scans:
They may be one of three types:
Radiographers: These doctors use imaging procedures to look for health problems. They can also interpret the images in the test and provide the doctor with information about the results.
Interventional radiologists: these doctors use imaging, including X-rays and MRI scans, to pair with medical procedures. They may help treat diseases such as heart disease, stroke and cancer.
Radiation oncologists: these doctors use radiation therapy to prescribe cancer treatment.
Rheumatologists diagnose and treat rheumatic diseases. These are autoimmune diseases that can affect bones, joints and muscles. Some common rheumatic diseases include, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, lupus, scleroderma, psoriatic arthritis. Rheumatologists also need internal medicine or paediatric training.
HACK TO SUCCESSFULLY BECOME A MEDICAL DOCTOR
Step 1: Explore your options
Aspiring doctors should conduct informational interviews with doctors and gain some clinical experience so that they can measure whether they are good at and enjoy medical practice. Experts say potential doctors should also take demanding science courses to assess their personal affinity for the field of technical research, as these disciplines are not suitable for everyone.
Step 2: Take a preparatory course and get good grades
Individuals who find their desire to become a doctor after they receive their college degree can choose to enroll in the post-Bachelor preparatory program so that they can complete all the required preparatory courses.
Step 3: Engage in meaningful extracurricular activities
A prep student who does a good job in his or her course but does nothing else is less likely to be noticed and admitted to a top medical school. Medical school admissions officials say that substantial academic research or work as a medical scribe or medical assistant is often viewed positively in the admissions process.
Step 4: Prepare MCAT and Ace
Perfect MCAT scores are rare because testing is very difficult. Premature babies should study the median mcat score of the medical school they are most interested in, and they should take the MCAT exam only if they are always able to reach the target score in the practice exam
Step 5: Prepare applications for multiple medical schools
Experts recommend that preparatory students should strategically consider what extracurricular activities they include in their application and how they describe them, as the admissions officer will carefully review the list of activities. In addition, given the low admission rates of most medical schools, experts warn that premature babies should plan to apply to numerous schools to increase their chances of admission, noting that it is better to make mistakes on the side of excesses rather than restraint.
Step 6: Impress the Med school interviewer and get at least 1 acceptance letter
Candidates who look good on paper will be invited to an interview in medical school so that the admissions committee can measure whether the person is really as good as they appear on paper, so thoroughly prepare for the interview.
Step 7: Register the right type of medical school for you
Aspiring doctors can choose to attend a research-oriented academic institution or a school that focuses on primary care. They can also choose between two types of medical degrees: a doctor of medicine or a doctor of Medicine and a doctor of Osteopathic Medicine or a doctor of Medicine. Both projects involve a mix of medical science courses and clinical rotations.
Step 8: Apply and match the residence plan
Fourth-grade medical students usually try to match residency programs within the medical majors they find most interesting. Most medical students participate in the National Resident Matching Program, although some participate in specialty-specific matching programs, such as those for aspiring urologists and ophthalmologists.
Step 9: Graduate from medical school
Once someone has earned a medical degree and graduated from medical school, he or she officially becomes a doctor. However, even after a person has obtained a medical degree, he or she usually needs to complete a residency within a particular medical specialty (such as pediatrics or radiology) in order to practice medicine independently in his or her community.
Step 10: Start your residency and get a general medical license
The length of medical hospitalization varies, usually from three to seven years, depending on the specialty. Hospitalization allows medical school graduates to study the art and science of a specific field of Medicine, whether it is obstetrics and gynecology or dermatology.
Step 11: Get board certification within your medical specialty
After someone has completed the necessary residency and fellowship training, they must pass the applicable Board Exam. They can then apply for board certification within their discipline through the American Board of medical specialties.