When discovering a physics meaning, we look at “knowledge of nature” from φσσις phýsis “nature’ is the Natural Science of the study of matter, it moves and behaves through space and time, as well as related entities of energy and power.
Physics is one of the most basic scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand the behavior of the universe. Physics is one of the oldest disciplines, and by incorporating astronomy into it, perhaps the oldest. For most of the past two thousand years, certain branches of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and mathematics were part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution of the 17th century, these natural sciences themselves became unique research efforts.
Physics intersects many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not strictly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the basic mechanisms of other scientific studies and suggest new ways of research in disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy.
Physics is the basic physical science. Until recently, physics and Natural Philosophy were used interchangeably, the purpose of which was to discover and formulate the Basic Laws of nature in science. With the development of modern science and the increase in specialization, physics began to represent the physical science part that was not included in astronomy, chemistry, geology and engineering.
Physics plays an important role in all natural sciences, however, all of these areas have branches where the laws of physics and measurements are particularly emphasized, such as astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, and even psychophysics. Physics can be defined on the basis of the science of matter, motion and energy. Its laws are usually expressed in mathematical language in an economical and precise way.
DEVELOPMENT IN PHYSICS
Classical physics meaning
When early modern Europeans used experimental and quantitative methods to discover what is now considered the laws of physics, physics became an independent science.
The main developments of this period included replacing the geocentric model of the solar system with the heliocentric Copernicus model, the laws of planetary body motion determined by Kepler between 1609 and 1619, Galileo’s pioneering work in telescopes and observational astronomy in the 16th and 17th centuries, Newton’s discovery and unification of the laws of motion and gravitation, which will be named after him.
Newton also developed calculus, the mathematical study of change, which provides new mathematical methods for solving physical problems. With the increase in energy demand, more research work during the industrial revolution led to the discovery of new laws of thermodynamics, chemistry and electromagnetism.
The laws containing classical physics are still very widely used for objects on everyday scales traveling at non-relativistic speeds, as they provide very close approximations in this case, and theories such as quantum mechanics and relativity are simplified to their classical equivalents on this scale. However, the inaccuracy of very small objects and very high speeds in classical mechanics led to the development of modern physics in the 20th century.
Modern physics meaning
Modern physics began in the early 20th century with the work of Max Planck on quantum theory and Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Both theories are due to the inaccuracy of classical mechanics in some cases. Classical mechanics predicted different speeds of light, which could not be solved with the constant speed predicted by Maxwell’s electromagnetic equation;
Einstein’s theory of special relativity corrected this difference, which replaced the classical mechanics of fast-moving objects and allowed for a constant speed of light. blackbody radiation provided another problem for classical physics, which was corrected when Planck proposed that material oscillators could only be excited at discrete steps proportional to their frequency; this, together with the complete theory of the photoelectric effect and the prediction of discrete energy levels in electronic orbits, led to the theory of quantum mechanics replacing classical physics at very small scales.
Quantum mechanics will be pioneered by Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Dirac. from this early work and work in related fields, the standard model of particle physics is derived after CERN discovered a particle consistent with the properties of the Higgs boson in 2012, all elementary particles predicted by the standard model, and no other particles, seem to exist; however, physics beyond the standard model, with theories such as supersymmetry, is an active field of research. The general field of mathematics is important to this field, such as the study of probability and groups
SCOPE OF PHYSICS
Physics covers a wide range of phenomena, from elementary particles (such as quarks, neutrinos and electrons) to the largest supercluster in galaxies. These phenomena contain the most basic objects that make up all other things. Therefore, physics is sometimes referred to as “basic science”.physics aims to describe the various phenomena that occur in nature in simple phenomena. Therefore, the purpose of physics is to connect the root causes observed by humans, and then connect those causes together
Nuclear and particle physics
Particle physics is the study of the basic components of matter and energy and the interaction between them. in addition, particle physicists designed and developed the high-energy accelerators, detectors, and computer programs necessary for this study.
The field is also known as “high energy physics” because many elementary particles do not occur naturally, but only during high energy collisions of other particles. Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the composition and interaction of atomic nuclei.
The most common applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology, but this study has provided applications in many areas, including nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, ion implantation in material engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics
Atomic, molecular and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter–matter and light–matter interactions on a monatomic and molecular scale. Due to the interrelationship, the similarity of the methods used, and the commonality of the relevant energy scales, these three areas are grouped.
All three areas include classical, semi-classical, and quantum therapy; they can treat their subjects from a micro perspective (rather than a macro perspective). Atomic physics studies the electron shell of an atom.
Current research focuses on quantum control, cooling and capturing the activity of atoms and ions, effects of low temperature collision dynamics and electron correlation on structure and dynamics. Atomic physics is influenced by atomic nuclei (see Super-subdivided fission), but intra-nuclear phenomena such as fission and Fusion are considered part of nuclear physics.
Molecular physics focuses on polyatomic structures and their internal and external interactions with matter and light. The difference between optical physics and Optics is that it tends to focus not on the control of the classical light field by macroscopic objects, but on the basic properties of the light field and its interaction with matter in the microscopic field.
Condensed matter physics
Condensed Matter Physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. In particular, it relates to a “condensed” phase that occurs whenever the number of particles in the system is very large and the interaction between them is strong.
The most common examples of condensed phases are solid and liquid, bonded by electromagnetic forces between atoms more exotic condensed phases include super fluids and Bose–Einstein condensates found in some atomic systems at very low temperatures, superconducting phases exhibit conductive electrons in certain materials, and spin ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase’s atomic lattices. Condensed Matter Physics is the largest field of contemporary physics.
Historically, Condensed Matter Physics originated in solid state physics, and it is now considered one of its main sub-fields. The term Condensed Matter Physics was apparently coined by Philip Anderson when he renamed his research group—the previous solid state theory-in 1967. In 1978, the Solid State Physics Department of the American Physical Society was renamed the Condensed Matter Physics Department. Condensed Matter Physics overlaps with chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, and engineering.
Astro physics and astronomy is the application of physical theory and methods to study questions about the origin of stellar structure, stellar evolution, the solar system and cosmology.
Since astrophysics is a broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, as well as atomic and molecular physics.
The Big Bang was confirmed by the success of the Big Bang nuclear synthesis and the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1964. The Big Bang model is built on two theoretical pillars: Einstein’s General Theory of relativity and cosmological principles. Cosmologists have recently established ΛCDM models of cosmic evolution, which include cosmic expansion, dark energy, and dark matter.
It is expected that new data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope over the next decade will produce many possibilities and discoveries and greatly modify or clarify existing cosmic models. In particular, the huge discovery potential of dark matter is possible in the coming years.