Understanding Biology as a Science

Biology as a science examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution of organisms. It studies life and organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. It classifies and describes organisms, their functions, how species exist, and how they interact with the natural environment.

Four unified principles form the basis of modern biology: cell theory, evolution, genetics, and homeostasis. Biology as a science was developed in the XIX century, as scientists discovered that organisms share common basic characteristics. Traditionally, they are grouped by the type of organism studied: Botany, Plant Research; Zoology, Animal research; microbiology, microbiology research


“Biology” is derived from the ancient Greek βίος; the Romanized bíos means “life” and-λογία;the Romanized logía (- logy) means “branch of research” or “speak”. These combinations make the Greek word βιολογία; Romanized biología means biology. Nevertheless, the term βιολογία as a whole did not exist in ancient Greece. The first to borrow it is English and French (biologie).

Historically, there was another term “Biology” in English, lifelore; it is rarely used today. The origins of modern biology and its methods of studying nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. With Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s significant improvement in microscopes, biology began to develop and develop rapidly.

It was then that scholars discovered the diversity of sperm, bacteria, infusoria and microscopic life. Jan Swammerdam’s investigation led to a new interest in entomology and helped develop basic techniques for Microscopic Anatomy and staining. Advances in microscopy have also had a profound impact on biological thinking.

At the beginning of the 19th century, some biologists pointed out the central importance of cells. Then, in 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began to popularize the now widespread idea that the basic unit of an organism is a cell and individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed all cells from the division of other cells.

However, thanks to the work of Robert Remarque and Rudolf verjo, by the 1860s, most biologists accepted all three principles, which came to be known as cell theory. At the same time, classification and classification became the focus of natural historians. Carl Linnaeus published the basic taxonomy of the natural world in 1735 (variations of which have been in use) and introduced scientific names for all his species in 1750.


Cell theory

Cell theory states that cells are the basic unit of life, all organisms consist of one or more cells, all cells are produced from pre-existing cells through cell division. In multicellular organisms, each cell in the organism’s body eventually comes from a single cell in the fertilized egg. Cells are also considered to be the basic unit of many pathological processes. In addition, the phenomenon of energy flow occurs in cells, and these processes are part of a function called metabolism. Finally, cells contain genetic information (DNA) that is passed from cell to cell during cell division. The study of the origin of life, abiogenesis, is equivalent to trying to discover the origin of the first cell.

The two cells

The Different Cells



A central organizational concept in biology is that life changes and develops through evolution,and all known life forms have a common origin. Evolution assumes that all living things on earth, whether alive or extinct, are descended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene pool.

The Gene as the engine room for Evolution

This universal common ancestor of all living things is believed to have emerged about 3.5 billion years ago. Biologists believe that the prevalence of the genetic code is clear evidence in favor of the theory of universal common lineage of all bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes (see: origin of life).

In 1809, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck introduced the term “evolution” to the scientific dictionary, and fifty years later, Charles Darwin proposed a scientific model of natural selection as a driving force for evolution. (Alfred Russell Wallace is considered a co-discoverer of the concept because he helped study and experiment with the concept of evolution). Evolution is now being used to explain the dramatic changes in life found on Earth.



Genes are the main inheritance unit of all living organisms. A gene is a unit of heredity that corresponds to a region of DNA that affects the form or function of an organism in a particular way. All living things, from bacteria to animals, share the same basic machinery that replicates DNA and converts it into proteins. The cell transcribes the DNA gene into an RNA version of that gene, and the ribosome then converts that RNA into an amino acid sequence called a protein. The translation code from RNA codons to amino acids is the same for most organisms. For example, DNA sequences encoding insulin in humans also encode insulin when inserted into other organisms (such as plants).

Biology as a science

The Gene


Homeostasis is the ability of an open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain stable conditions through multiple homeostasis adjustments controlled by interrelated adjustment mechanisms. All organisms, whether single-celled or multicellular, exhibit homeostasis. In order to maintain dynamic balance and perform certain functions effectively, the system must detect and respond to disturbances. Upon detection of perturbations, biological systems typically respond by negative feedback, stabilizing conditions by reducing or increasing the activity of organs or systems.


Biology as a science consists of many sub-disciplines that involve all aspects of life, in fact, all aspects of modern human life. That said, there are countless career options, from basic science to industrial or agricultural applications.

* Biochemistry: according to the Society of biochemistry, research takes place in organisms or biological-related chemical processes. Pharmacology, for example, is a biochemical study that focuses on how drugs interact with chemicals in the body, as described in a 2010 review in the journal Biochemistry.

* Ecology: study how organisms interact with the environment. For example, ecologists can study how the behavior of bees is influenced by nearby humans.

* Genetics: the study of genetics. Geneticists study how genes are passed on from parents to offspring, and how they vary from person to person. For example, scientists have identified several genes and genetic mutations that affect human life, as reported in a 2019 review published in the journal Nature Review genetics.

* Physiology: the study of how biology works. Physiology applies to any living organism, according to nature “to deal with the life-support functions and processes of a living organism or part thereof.” Physiologists try to understand biological processes, such as how a particular organ works, what its function is and how it is affected by external stimuli.

* Astrobiology: is the study of the evolution of life in the universe, including the search for extraterrestrial life, according to NASA. The field combines the principles of biology with astronomy.

* Bioarchaeologists: are biologists who combine archaeological techniques to study skeletal remains and gain insights about how people lived in the past, according to George Mason University.

* Bioengineering: is the application of engineering principles to biology and vice versa. For example, bioengineers can develop a new medical technology to better image the interior of the body, such as improved MRI, scan the human body at a faster speed and higher resolution, or apply biological knowledge to create artificial organs.

* Biotechnology: involves the use of biological systems to develop products.

* Biophysics: uses physical principles to understand how biological systems work.



Biologists can work in many different fields because biology as a science covers all aspects of life, including research, health care, environmental protection and the arts.

* Research: Biologists can conduct research in many types of environments. For example, microbiologists can study Bacterial Culture in a laboratory environment. Other biologists can conduct field studies, where they observe animals or plants in their native habitat.

* Healthcare: People who study biology can continue to work in healthcare, whether they are doctors or nurses, join pharmaceutical companies to develop new drugs and vaccines, study the efficacy of medical care, or become veterinarians to help treat sick animals, according to the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

* Conservation: Biologists can help environmental protection efforts by studying and determining how to protect and preserve the natural world of the future.

* Art: Biologists who also have an artistic background have technical knowledge and artistic skills to create visual effects that convey complex biological information to a wide variety of audiences.







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